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Making Low-Dose Cannabis Oil Capsules


During my constitutional challenge for cannabis extracts in 2012, the federal government made the argument that the only difference between chewing the dried inflorescence (buds) and making an edible is that cookies are tasty. Tastiness doesn’t serve a medical purpose and certainly isn’t protected as a constitutional right. The Judge rightly saw through this argument particularly because one of the products I was making, which all the patient witnesses use, is a flavourless cannabis oil infused gel capsule.

The capsule (named Ryanol after a former baker) is filled with a cannabis infused grape seed oil. Olive, hemp, and coconut oil are also used as a base for capsules, each helping to facilitate the bodies’ absorption of the fat soluble cannabinoids. Capsules are small and easy to swallow. The similarity of capsules to pills makes them more accessible to patients and doctors familiar with conventional medical approaches: people who understandably don’t consider a cookie to be a medicinal tool.


(Picture of capsules being filled with oil in a capping tray)

Ryanol is the lowest dose capsule available at the V-CBC, offering a way for patients unfamiliar with eating cannabis to ease their way into it. Ryanol fits with the axiom of “Dose low, Go Slow”. By starting out with a small amount, a patient can more carefully titrate their dose to their desired level. The V-CBC’s cannabis capsules contain 0.75mL of organic oil infused with the specific active ingredients needed to achieve the desired effects.

Patients can have a variety of dietary requirements including sugar-free, gluten-free and dairy-free that prevent them from indulging in common cannabis edibles. The simplicity of the infused oil capsules make them the mostly widely accessible product at the club. Additionally, by using dry sift hash from different cultivars, they reduce the presence of non-medicinal ingredients, enabling an even more precise measurement. Each capsule has been infused with 100mg of the active ingredients from a selection of cultivars including Sativa, Indica and CBD dominant plants.

Capsules Poster Landscape copy

(the variety of infused cannabis oil capsules offered by the V-CBC dispensary)

The V-CBC now make 9 capsules that are designed to occupy the spectrum of strengths and effects their membership seek. Patients report that by eating just 1 or 2 of these capsules, 1 to 3 times a day, they can achieve relief from pain, nausea, anxiety (including anxiety exacerbated by THC) and muscle-spasms without feeling high or having undesired side effects. The club receives donations of leaf from their long-term growers and collects the stems that are removed when the dried buds are sold: reusing these to make affordable low strength infused oil capsules.

With a capping tray and a bag of gel caps, it can take under ten minutes to make 100 capsules. it is important that your capping tray is completely dry, any moisture will cause the gel capsule to melt, which can get messy. After removing the cap and placing it into a hole,  use a syringe, (or a squeeze bottle with a narrow spout) to fill the capsule with infused oil. It takes a steady hand to avoid making a mess before carefully putting the little caps back on.


  • Organic vegetable oil infused with a variety cannabis cultivars.
  • Capsules made from 100% vegetable cellulose
  • Soy Lecithin


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Cannabis Extracts throughout History: Part 4

Extract History part 4

Cannabis in the 21st Century

During the past three blogs I have swept over the history of cannabis extracts to show that simple extraction techniques were common knowledge among medicine makers in ancient times. From Taoist sages to the Queens personal physician; from Egyptian Papyri to the labs of modern scientists at L’Oreal: the lineage of cannabis extraction offers up many potentials for the future of our relationship with this bountiful plant. The discovery of the endocannabinoid system has uniquely linked cannabis to the health of all vertebrates since time immemorial.

I am acutely interested in the future uses of cannabis as over the past 5 years I have been attempting to relay the critical importance of basic extraction for any cannabis based medicine in court to the Canadian federal government. My victory in court in 2012 was recently upheld by the BC Court of Appeal, which has given the government 1 year to regulate the production of cannabis extracts. The government claims that due to the lack of double-blind, blue-ribbon, placebo-controlled, clinical trials, cannabis is not proven safe. My expert witness, Dr. David Pate suggested that “cannabis has undergone a multiyear open-label clinical trial by virtue of being in such popular use both medically and recreationally for an extended period of time, essentially hundreds of years.” (source)

At the same time as my trial, extracts were becoming widely available in the United States. With two states (and more to come) now permitting their legal production for recreational use, the future of cannabis culture is about to be blown wide open. Among recent revelations are the use of cannabis extracts for various emerging forms of cancer and epilepsy as well as it’s superior nutritional value when juiced raw. A 9th century Arabic compendium of pharmacology recommended the use of cannabis juice extract and the renowned Arabic physician Al-Kindi recognized the plants’ use for a condition known as ‘the trembling’ which resembles the recent revelation of its’ anti-spasmodic properties among children with seizure disorders.


(Charlotte Figi’s story is covered in detail by CNN’s Sanjay Gupta)

Studies of sifted trichomes in Morocco and Afghanistan have revealed that “Cannabis fields in […] generations past would tend to yield equal proportions of THC and CBD.” The 1:1 ratio has become a popular choice for patients with epilepsy as cultivars are disseminated through the emerging distribution networks. The semi-cultivated cannabis of ancient times is probably closer to modern hemp than the indoor grown, manicured, feminized, seedless clones that have dominated the black market for decades.

In Canada, industrial hemp is grown specifically to contain very little THC, so it can’t get you stoned. However, hemp seed oil has been found to contain CBD and terpenes likely as “the result of contamination from glandular hairs during oil processing.” CBD is among many cannabinoids currently being explored for a wide range of medicinal effects. Although the levels of CBD within hemp seed oil are typically small, many health benefits may still be gained from its presence. A recent H.P.L.C. analysis indicated that the juiced leaves of Saskatchewan hemp contained five times as much CBD as THC and showed ten times as much CBDa.

The modern era has suffered from a failed global effort at cannabis prohibition which has stalled the cannabis culture while science and technology have advanced massively. 1 Billion grams of potentially life-saving medicine from this years Canadian hemp harvest will go to waste in the fields. Although setback by the destruction of useful cultivars at the dawn of prohibition, the hemp industry is utilizing the modern advances in science and technology that have it poised to grow beyond anything possible in ancient times.


(image: Dixie Botanicals)

A former U.S. Navy nuclear submarine technician designs and sells supercritical CO2 extraction machines that isolate the cannabinoid oils from the plant material (source) . While these machines are far more expensive than the Naptha and a rice cooker method used by Rick Simpson, they have zero potential for toxic solvent residue.

The supercritical CO2 extraction machine is currently being used to ceate concentrated oils from naturally grown hemp stalk and seed that contain high amounts of CBD. This oil is used to make ‘Real Scientific Hemp Oil’, which is an 18% CBD extract of hemp, administered in syringes. Dixie Botanicals science director, Tamar Wise asserted in 2012 that “the hemp oil we use is biologically created in hemp plants and our methodology isolates and extracts it”. Wise later criticized Dixie for using hemp that is “contaminated with microbial life, residual solvents and other toxins”(source). As detailed in my trial, CBD is stored in the head of glandular trichomes that protrude from the surface of the plant like blades of grass topped by beads of dew. The removal of the precariously dangling resin heads (called trichomes) from the plant prior to extraction greatly reduces the presence of contaminants that reside in the body of the plant.

Medical Marijuana Inc. in the U.S. are harvesting 1,000 Acres of European Hemp into 2,000 kilograms of raw hemp oil to be used in DixeX high CBD Hemp products. On their website, DixieX presents “A revolution in Hemp-Powered Wellness Products” (source) with a salve, a pill and a tincture “manufactured from non-THC, high CBD concentrate […] industrial Hemp products ranging from 100-500 milligrams”. These products can be shipped to consumers in all 50 states in the U.S. The FDA considers industrial hemp as a food or dietary supplement product and Medical Marijuana Inc. imports its raw CBD oil under approved tariff codes to its FDA registered facility.” (source)

Some of the elements needed to start a high-CBD medicine in Canada have been embedded in the developing hemp industry and medical marijuana movement over the past decade. In 2003 Canada grew 66,700 acres of hemp. CMH biotech, who currently test for THC levels in hemp, have been developing analytical methods to test other cannabinoid compounds, including CBD (cannabidiol), CBN (cannabinol), CBG (cannabigerol), CBL (cannabicyclol), CBC (canna- bichromene), Δ8-THC, THCV (Δ9- tetrahydrocannabivarin), and their acid forms.


(Manitoba hemp harvest under mandatory inspection for THC)

Creating CBD-rich products just became a recognized charter protected right for federally registered patients in Canada. Licensed Producers under the MMPR have laboratories to test the purity and potency of their products and many are invested in Research and Development. I see potential for the medical cannabis industry in utilizing the rolling fields of industrial hemp. With ingenuity and modern technology, farmers may someday be able to separate and collect mountains of hemp hash to be processed into clean and effective medicine.

A recent Canadian hemp industry report out of Alberta states that a “License to grow industrial hemp for grain or fibre is issued for one calendar year for crops of four hectares (10 acres) or more, and if cultivating for seed not less than one hectare. There is no minimum plot size for plant breeding.” The report also shows a gradual increase in hemp production in correspondence with the emergence of processing facilities and entrepreneurs to market and sell hemp products. On Apr. 1, 2012 Hemp Oil Canada Inc. based in Manitoba announced that it is first in the world to gain international food safety accreditation for hemp foods ( source ).

This plant continues to unfold medical wonders from its symbiosis with human beings. From the better-known effects of medical cannabis to the hidden secrets of raw industrial hemp, the offerings continue to emerge. With international support growing and people from all over the world uniting over our need for economic independence, industrial hemp shines behind the green high beams of the medical cannabis movement. When thinking of the tens of thousands of acres of hemp, whose leaves lay to compost, I am reminded of the passage from Revelation 22:2 and feel we are witnessing the return of this tree of life, where “The leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations”.


Read More from Owen Smith on the Cannabis Digest Blogs

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Topical Cannabis Oil

One therapeutic principle is to apply a medication as close to the source of the problem as possible. One example is if somebody has a skin lesion, an anti-biotic skin cream is preferable to an oral dose. Oral doses are more appropriate for gastro-intestinal conditions as they coat the G.I. tract. Inhaled cannabis is preferred for immediate relief from acute conditions. Appropriate application methods attempt to maximize desired effects and minimize undesired side effects. For medical users the psychoactive effects are sometimes undesired as they may conflict with their daily activities. Patients find they can reduce the amount of cannabis inhaled or ingested by applying an oil externally, directly to the site of concern. This has the benefit of reducing the amount of cannabis delivered to the brain through the bloodstream, reducing the psychoactive effects.

Health Canada’s information for health care professionals contains some of the few studies on topical application. Studies measuring the nanogram per millilitre of THC in the bloodstream have shown that anywhere in the range of 7-29ng/mL is enough to produce the subjective “high” effect. (source) A study on trans-dermal cannabinoid delivery found that after an hour and a half exposure blood plasma levels reached only 4.4ng/mL. Permeation of cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) was found to be 10-fold higher than for Δ8-THC. (source)  The consumption of a chocolate cookie containing 20 mg THC resulted in peak plasma THC concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 11 ng/mL, (source) barely passing into the psychoactive range. Studies on very weak cannabis (1.6% THC) when smoked resulted in mean peak THC blood plasma levels of 77 ng/mL, (source) approximately 10 times that of eating a cookie, and 20 times the topical administration.


(The red line Indicates the level of THC needed to produce the ‘subjective “high” effect)

While topical cannabis only minimally passes through the skin into the bloodstream, this doesn’t mean it’s ineffective. Cannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 receptor sites in our bodies, which have been located in nerve fibres of the skin, skin cells (keratinocytes), cells of the hair follicles, sweat glands, and other cells present in the skin. “Abundant distribution of cannabinoid receptors on skin nerve fibers and mast cells provides implications for an anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive action of cannabinoid receptor agonists.” (source) “It seems that the main physiological function of the cutaneous ECS is to constitutively control the proper and well-balanced proliferation, differentiation and survival, as well as immune competence and/or tolerance, of skin cells.” (source)

At the V-CBC where topical “massage” oils have long been available to members, the combination of a topical product with some form of internal administration is reported to produce greater pain relief than either on its own. Topical application reduces pain where it arises, while internal routes increase the brain’s resistance to incoming pain signals. Arthritis sufferers are the most common topical cannabis users, although members have reported rapidly healing third degree burns, experienced relief from eczema, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and in one case cleared a poison oak rash. (testimony)

The fat soluble cannabinoids, soaked in vegetable oil and strained of the plant bulk (How to), create a simple and effective lotion.


  • Cannabis infused olive oil
  • Vitamin E (to help with absorption)


By Owen Smith

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Cannabis Extracts throughout History: Part 3

Extract History part 3

Cannabis in the Modern Era

In the second part of this series on Cannabis Extracts in History I looked at references from 1CE to the 17th century when cannabis began to emerge in the west as a prominent medicine. The modern era is dominated by prohibition. Check out this ‘History of marijuana law in the U.S.A.’ Graphic Timeline by Dr. David Allen and Cannabis Digest editor Judith Stamps new timeline on the Absurdities in the Drug War.

Our modern era war on cannabis has been declared a failure by successive teams of scientists from around the world(1). Criminal punishments have not effectively deterred individuals from seeking out this undeniably useful medicine. The DEA’s own Judge Francis Young concluded at the end of a lengthy legal process in 1988 that “Marijuana in its natural form is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man.”(2) I find it strangely ironic that modern day drug warriors celebrate a successful bust in the same manner that our primitive ancestors celebrated a successful boom, by openly burning large amounts of cannabis.(3)

Politicians and physicians continue to address the issue with lacklustre, pointing to the problem of smoking and reciting the carcinogenic properties of burnt vegetable matter. It has become apparent on our historical journey that not only is cannabis a diverse and effective medicine, but that this has been well known by diligent individuals since time immemorial. With even the most basic of techniques, these individuals separated the active ingredients from the vegetative mass, averting these feared pitfalls, to create medicines superior to their modern synthetic counterparts.

Whole Plant Horizons

With the recent BC Court of Appeal decision opening the door to patients who make whole plant medicinal cannabis extracts, the Canadian government has been given a year to adapt their regulations. Health Canada’s attempt to treat cannabis more like a pharmaceutical has been a slow and expensive process that leaves those presently suffering at a loss and in pain. The inherent difficulty in studying this complex and dynamic plant for the purpose of isolating and synthesizing patented products for the pharmacy lingers in the background of the Canadian Medical Associations’ lament for more research. For the great number of people who have an immediate need for a steady supply of cannabis extract, but can’t make it for themselves, the only options are a local dispensary or a compassionate caregiver.

Community dispensaries like the V-CBC are always trying to meet the diverse needs of their growing membership by focussing and expanding their product lines. The creation of seven different massage oil combinations (cannabis + Arnica, Comfrey, St. John’s Wart) has created an array of topical options for members seeking to treat circulation, respiratory, bone, deep muscle, nerve, and hormonal conditions. Publishing all of the methods and recipes online (4) has helped members make their own medicine as the demand for the club’s products expands.

timeline 3

Chinese medicine may be poised to offer unique insights into the use of cannabis in herbal remedies, recipes for which may stretch back thousands of years. Dr. Luc Duchesne, an Ottawa-based businessman and biochemist, wrote in InvestorIntel, “Chinese traditional medicine is poised to take advantage of a growing trend. The writing is on the wall: Westernised Chinese traditional medicine is coming to a dispensary near you.”

In the 1990s, scientists discovered the endocannabinoid system (5) and the receptor sites for THC in our brain.(6) In 2000, a study in Spain showed cannabis to “inhibit the growth of tumour cells in culture and animal models.”(7) With research breaking out in areas where cannabis laws are loosening, there is a great deal of anticipation as to the miracles of healing that phytocannabinoid therapeutics still has to offer.

23 U.S. states now have medical cannabis legislation, and the states of Colorado and Washington have legalized its use for adults. A wave of support has followed the revelation of cannabis as a treatment for rare forms of epilepsy in children. In my final blog on the history of cannabis extracts I will propose some potentials achievements for the future of medicinal cannabis extracts.


Read More from Owen Smith on the Cannabis Digest Blogs



1. Global war on drugs a failure, high-level panel says http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/02/us-drugs-commission-idUSTRE7513XW20110602
2. US Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, “In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling Petition,” [Docket #86-22], (September 6, 1988), pp. 6, 58, 68.
3. 58 held in Mexico’s biggest marijuana farm bust http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2011-07-15-drug-war-mexico_n.htm
4. http://www.cbc-canada.ca/recipes/cbcoc-official-recipe-book
5. http://www.jaoa.org/content/108/10/586.full
6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2165569
7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14570037

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Cannabis ‘Goji’ Lozenges


One of the medical cannabis products I was making when arrested in 2009 was the V-CBC’s ‘Ganja Goji’ Lozenges. The result of my arrest was the launch of a (so far successful) constitutional challenge that has removed the prohibition on extracted cannabis products for thousands of ill Canadians. The benefits of sucking on a cannabis lozenge include a faster onset of effects than by eating; a bypass on metabolic breakdown; and the localization of effects to the mouth.

Oro-mucosal application delivers the cannabinoids more slowly into the bloodstream than inhalation, but faster than ingestion. By passing through the mucosal lining of the inner cheek a patient may avoid the gastrointestinal tract, this method of administration prevents first-pass metabolism by the stomach and liver, which breaks down many different molecules into their constituent parts. That being said, a small portion of the dose is still likely to be swallowed.

Faster onset of effects is one of the reasons behind the development of Sativex, an alcohol based oro-mucosal (mouth) spray, which is available in Canada by prescription. Sativex is derived from cannabis plants grown in a laboratory and is classified as a Botanical Drug Substance with a “1:1 dose ratio combination of CBD:THC.” (source) However, Sativex has been shown to “cause irritations in the mouth in 20-25% patients in clinical trials.” (source) In a comparative study, former V.I.C.S. dispensary owner (now with Tilray) Phillipe Lucas found that although superior to Marinol and Cesamet, Sativex is inferior to inhaled whole cannabis due to the delay of onset, and concluded that “the high cost (my total of 45 sprays, was $135 worth of Sativex) is sure to be prohibitive to many who might otherwise benefit from its use.” (PharmaCannabis, Lucas 2006)

One likely cause of irritation is the alcohol base which may not be recommended for patients whose medications contra-indicate ingesting alcohol. To suit all of their members needs, The V-CBC uses coconut oil as a base for their lozenges: members of the dispensary have reported the lozenges help reduce swelling and pain associated with oral discomfort incurred as a side effect of other treatments. The lozenges are mostly used as a low-dose pain reliever, muscle relaxant, anti-emetic, and anti-inflammatory.

The methods for making vegetable oil infusions that are outlined in the V-CBC’s online RECIPE BOOK include some important tips and will soon be updated with their expanding product line, that includes a mango lozenge.



  • Cannabis Inflorescence (bud) Infused Coconut Oil*
  • Dried Goji Berries (Chinese Wolf Berries)
  • Slippery Elm Bark
  • Flax Seed Water (Binding Agent)
  • Soy Lecithin


Put 5 tbsp. of slippery elm bark into a grinder

Add 2 1⁄2 Cups of Dried Wolfberries

Blend till fine

Makes 2 cups wolfberry powder

Add 2 tbsp. thick flax seed water*

1/3 cup Infused Coconut Oil**

Mix well

Use a form such as a jello tray to make a small candy shape

Coat the tray holes with liquid lecithin to prevent sticking and add mix to fill tray

Refrigerate for a few hours to let them bind and harden

Wrap in wax paper individually

bag, label and refrigerate

keep out of reach of children or pets

* To make Flax seed water put 2 tablespoons of flax seed in 1 cup of water and heat until boil then reduce to a simmer until thick. Strain and use the gelatinous water as a binding alternative to eggs for vegan diets.

** see Preparing Oils and Butter


By Owen Smith

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Cannabis Extracts Throughout History – Part 2

Extract History part 2

Cannabis in the Common Era

In the first part of this series on Cannabis Extracts in History I looked at references from Before the Common Era or 1CE. In China, where we find the earliest advancements in cannabis/hemp production (5000 BCE), physicians beginning with Hoa-Tho (200 CE) prescribed cannabis mixed with wine as an analgesic during surgical procedures.1 The (570 CE) Taoist encyclopaedia Wushang Biyao (Supreme Secret Essentials), recorded adding cannabis into ritual censers. Sinologist and historian Joseph Needham believed that the founding scriptures of the Shangqing School of Taoism were written by Yang Xi (330-386 CE) during alleged visitations by Taoist immortals, “aided almost certainly by cannabis.”2

In the earliest known compendium of pharmacology in Arabic (9th Century), cannabis juice extract from the flowers and seeds is to be administered through the nostril to treat migraine, aching pains including uterine, and to prevent miscarriage.3 During this same period, the renowned physician and scientist Al-Kindi gave the first report of its muscle relaxant properties in relation to what was known as “the trembling.”4

One of the first of the great English botanists, John Parkinson, writes in 1640 that cannabis roots in a poultice are effective for treating tumours and other inflammation. “[…]the same decoction of the rootes, easeth the paines of the goute, the hard tumours, or knots of the joynts, the paines and shrinking of the sinewes, and other the like paines of the hippes: it is good to be used, for any place that hath beene burnt by fire, if the fresh juyce be mixed with a little oyle or butter” (source)

By the dawn of Western medicine, it was clear that cannabis was being used as a medicine in diverse ways for a wide range of conditions: successfully treating cholera,6 tetanus,7 and bubonic plague.8 Queen Victoria’s personal physician, Sir Russell Reynolds, prescribed cannabis for her menstrual cramps. He claims in the first issue of The Lancet, that cannabis “When pure and administered carefully, is one of the most valuable medicines we possess.”9

The popular method of directly inhaling the smoke from crushed cannabis flowers didn’t begin until the 16th century, and the introduction of tobacco from the new world. Cannabis cigarettes were only smoked as a treatment for asthma. Inhaling the smoke from Ganja flowers is now the most common method patients use to medicate. This is in part due to the risk associated with processing cannabis and the de facto moratorium on phytocannabinoid research.

Timeline Cannabis Common Era

The scarcity of accurate information has previously isolated the cannabis culture into small groups preventing the development of articulated guides to cannabis medicine. The rising availability of the internet and discussion forums has given the culture a place to build upon their collective knowledge despite the slippery persistence of the drug war mythology.

Cannabis prohibition is nearing its centennial in Canada, and the conditions it has created are now apparent. The persistent eradication of wild growing cannabis by law enforcement has driven gardeners to cultivate feminized Ganja indoors, in small spaces, for as much potency in as little time as possible, then either discarding or quickly processing the Bhang material into Charas. Due to the legal risks and scarcity of supply, the once free and abundant Charas is now valued in some forms at more than twice the price of gold.

Stronger than it used to be?

Prohibitionists currently claim that they are protecting society from high THC cannabis that is “much stronger than it was years ago,”13 however, the move to high THC cannabis strains began in 1840 when western physicians such as W.B. O’Shaughnessy began to draw wide attention to its use. Tests from the 1970s show THC levels as high as they are today.14 The recent rise in THC is consistent with the retreat of the plant into highly controlled, indoor grow operations.

Studies of sifted trichomes in Morocco and Afghanistan have revealed that “Cannabis fields in […] generations past would tend to yield equal proportions of THC and CBD.” This prohibitionist war cry is further diluted by their advocacy of pure synthetic THC pills, which have consistently been shown inferior to whole plant cannabis in medical applications. In past articles I have explained how CBD competes with THC for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, effectively protecting vulnerable individuals from an undesirable THC dominant experience.

In the third part of the Cannabis Extract in History Series I will catch us up to the present and look to the horizons at the modern revival of this ancient art.


Read More from Owen Smith on the Cannabis Digest Blogs



1. M.S. Julien, C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 1849, 28, 223.
2. J. Needham, L. Gwei-Djen, 1974, ‘Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Part 2, Spagyrical Discovery and Invention: Magisteries of Gold and Immortality’ Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
3. Didier M. Lambert, 2009, Cannabinoids in Nature and Medicine, 38
4. W. P. Farquhar-Smith, M. Egertova, E. J. Bradbury, S. B. McMahon, A. S. Rice, M. R. Elphick,
2000, Mol. Cell Neurosci.15, 510.
5. J. Parkinson, T.Bonham, M.d.L’Obel, 1640, Theatrum botanicum: The theater of plants; p.[16], 1756 www.scribd.com/doc/76626218/Russo-History-of-Cannabis-Chem-Biodiversity-2007                              6. E.B. Russo, Cannabis in India: Ancient lore and modern medicine, Ed. R. Mechoulam,
BirkhUuser Verlag, Basel, 2005, pp.1–22.
7. 1972 National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse – Appendix, Chapter One, Part I
8. L.R. Aubert-Roche, De la peste, ou typhus d’Orient, Paris, 1843, p.400.
9. J.R. Reynolds, Lancet 1890, 1, 637.
10. forums.cannabisculture.com/forums/
11. U.S.D.E.A., 2010, Speaking out against drug legalization, www.justice.gov/dea/demand/speakout/index.html
12. http://www.cannabisdispensary.ca/node/13
13. J. Kabelik, Z. Krejei, F. Santavy, Bull. 1960, Narcotics 12, 5.
14. D. C. Perry. 1977, Pharm.-Chem. Newsletter 6, 1.
15. Russo, 2007, History of Cannabis and its Preperations in Saga, Science, and Sobriquet onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cbdv.200790144/pdf
16. Smith, 2011. Cannabis Digest, Issue 30, Eating Cannabis as Medicine  http://www.cannabisdigest.ca/cms/2011/07/eating-cannabis-as-medicine

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Making Simple and Healthy Cannabis Edibles

By Owen Smith

When buying ingredients for the V-CBC, who i worked for as a cannabis medicine maker, I was asked to always choose whole, raw, organic, locally produced products wherever possible. The nutritional benefit of fresh ingredients adds to the medicinal effects of the product. A tasty brownie or chocolate chip cannabis cookie will not necessarily suit the particular diets of patients. At the V-CBC I helped make a variety of edible products to suit the general needs of the membership that include Sugar Free, Dairy Free, Gluten Free, Raw and Organic options. Some recipes call forflax wateras a vegan alternative to eggs.

They use hulled hemp seed in many recipes. Hemp seed has no psychoactive properties but provides us with a perfectly balanced 3:1 ratio of Omega 6 (linolei/LA) to Omega 3 (alpha-linolenic/LNA) EFAs, determined to be the optimum requirement for long-term healthy human nutrition (source). The body cannot produce these EFA’s so they have to be taken in with the foods we eat. However, when foods are processed, their EFA’s lose their nutritional value and even become toxic. EFAs are often sacrificed along with the B vitamins and the naturally occurring enzymes to enable extended shelf life in the supermarket. This is a major problem since EFAs are the building blocks for a healthy immune system.

Olive oil, grape seed oil and coconut oil are popularly used as a base for the medicinal infusion and also contain EFAs. Honey provides a natural preservative base rich in nutrients and minerals. Similarly to the vegetable oils, honey can be infused in a double boiler on low heat by allowing the honey to melt and reheat, repeating this process for up to 3 days before straining out the plant material. Other natural preservative sweeteners like agave and maple syrup can also be infused with dry kief hash, and used in medicinal tea’s or soft drinks.

One popular edible is the Budda Ball (named after a former baker). Patients report Budda Balls useful for compromised digestive systems, severe weight loss, and blood-sugar disorders. Buddha balls are intended as a meal supplement for those with wasting disorders associated with HIV/Aids and Chemo therapy while having the added benefit of pain management and nausea suppression. They are simple and easy to make. I helped the V-CBC publish all of their recipes online in this RECIPE BOOK which will soon be updated. It has sections on methods and techniques that should become common knowledge among patients seeking to make cannabis edibles.


(image: V-CBC)

Recipe for 24 Budda Balls

In a large mixing bowl add:

4 Cups Rolled Oats
3 Cups Shredded Coconut
1 Cup Raw Unsalted Sunflower Seeds
1 1⁄2 Cups Pumpkin Seed Protein
1 1⁄2 Cups Soy Protein
1⁄2 Cup Hemp Protein
1⁄2 Cup Hemp Hearts


add 1 Cup Budda Ball Oil*


add 400g honey

Mix Thoroughly

Put 1 Cup Almond Powder in a small bowl

Form the balls and roll in almond powder

Add 1⁄2 Cup Chocolate Chips for 1⁄2 the batch

Makes 24

Package, Label, Refrigerate

Keep out of Reach of Children and Pets


*see Preparing Oils and Butter


(previously appeared at Lift)